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  • 1974 Ph.D. Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, England. Special field of study: International Oil. Doctoral dissertation: “Iran's Oil Industry 1901-71.”
  • 1971 M.A. Economic Development, University of Sussex, Brighton, England. Master's Thesis: “Export Promotion Policies in Less Developed Countries.”
  • 1970B.A. (Honors) Economics, Lanchester Polytechnic, Coventry, England.
  • 1967 General Certificates of Education in Pure and Applied Mathematics and Physics (advanced level), Poole Technical College, Dorset, England.